The engine start-stop system is suitable for stop-and-go city traffic. How effective is the fuel saving and emission reduction? In the frequent start and stop conditions, the reliability of the system? How does it affect the user's driving habits and comfort?
On August 20th last year, China Automotive Technology and Research Center jointly launched a "Idle Start-stop Technology China Validation Test and Policy Research Project" jointly with some vehicle and component companies. After more than one year of investigation and research, on November 17th, in China Technical Conference Hall held a final meeting. Senior Engineer Qian Guogang of the China Automotive Technology and Research Center gave a detailed introduction of the research results; Liu Bin, deputy director of the China Academy of Automotive Technology Research Center, introduced the policy recommendations; Bosch (China) Investment Co., Ltd. starter Hou Hongjian, vice president of sales and generators, introduced the application of the start-stop system at home and abroad.
The effect of fuel-saving and emission reduction is obvious
Fuel saving is the most important function of the start-stop system. The project team conducted road tests and bench test of the laboratory. Qian Guogang said: "China National Automobile Center has accumulated a large number of data on vehicle operating conditions. We have summarized the operating conditions of some of the first-line, second-line and third-line cities, and used the WLTC cycle conditions development method to construct a commuter operating condition."
According to reports, when the project team established a new working condition, it collected a large amount of raw data, established a uniform distribution of speed and acceleration, compared the short-stroke combination and the uniform distribution, and adopted a common test cycle.
The first-line cities chosen for the road experiment are Beijing, Tianjin and Changsha are the second-tier cities, and Langfang is the third-tier cities. In order to test the accuracy, the project team took two cars driving at the same time, respectively, in the morning peak, noon and evening peak test fuel consumption levels. The test vehicles were Great Wall C30, Geely Emgrand EC7GSG, Changan CX30 Comfort Edition, Seahorse New Knight SA01 and Beiqi E150.
The research group reads the vehicle engine speed, vehicle speed, water temperature, inlet and outlet temperature, and ambient temperature information through the OBD interface, and obtains vehicle running trajectory and vehicle speed information through GPS. The road test results show that the average test operating time is 1211 seconds, the average idle time is 388 seconds, and the average helium rate is 32%.
Qian Guogang said: â€œThe rate of testing in cities is 30% to 40%. Even if the rate of plutonium in the third-line city of Langfang is greater than 30%, we compare the test data with the data collected in previous years and find that the average speed is decreasing year by year. Year by year."
In the straight and clean road, the outdoor temperature is 20Â°C, and the idle system oil saving rate is 10.6%. In the laboratory bench test, the construction condition oil saving rate is 8.5% to 10.6%, which simulates the urban circulation. Under operating conditions, the fuel saving rate at low temperature of 6Â°C is 7.4%, the ambient temperature at 25Â°C is 9.3%, and the high temperature at 35Â°C is 6.9%.
The actual fuel saving rate of the road is higher than the fuel saving rate of the laboratory drum. The reason may be that the actual idle speed ratio of the road is slightly higher, the driver's operation is more natural, the average speed and the length of the idling segment cause other factors.
The study of the research group also showed that the larger the injection fuel injection, the more unfavorable the fuel economy, and the idle speed that is too short, for example, only 3 seconds, the start and stop may be more fuel-efficient.
The start-stop system brings about a reduction in fuel consumption. What is the emission effect?
Qian Guogang said: â€œWe have conducted cold and hot state analysis of pollutant discharges. Under NEDC conditions, pollutant emissions have increased or decreased. In the case of constructing start and stop conditions for operating conditions, the emission index This is related to the fact that the engine has just been idling."
The project team tested the reliability of the start-stop system. There was no failure caused by the start-stop system in the test process. The 150,000 endurance tests of the starter did not cause any damage, and the battery was slightly ineffective for a long time at low temperatures. The research group proposes to carry out controlled tests to obtain the upper limit of the low-temperature rest time, clearly marked in the user's manual, and at the same time improve the battery technology.
In terms of driving, the survey results showed that drivers responded quickly enough to start responding without worrying about the problem of â€œstarting late and being queued,â€ and there was no discomfort in motor engagement noise. The drivers also reported that the manual parking of vehicles requires a neutral gear to be parked, and some informal operations (parking without a neutral gear) will have some influence. The automatic transmission will not change driving habits. At present, the start-stop system is affected by factors such as air conditioning and electrical power consumption, and is not yet suitable for taxi use.
The research group believes that the start-stop system has obvious effects on energy saving and carbon dioxide reduction, will not cause deterioration of emissions, and will perform well in terms of reliability and comfort.
A step has been taken abroad
At present, Europe and the United States and other countries have three types of Start-Stop, BSG, and I-Stop start-stop systems on traditional internal combustion engines. Hou Hongjian said: "Reducing CO2 emissions and improving fuel economy demand has prompted the European and American countries to start and stop system market penetration and rapid growth."
According to reports, certain countries in the European Union have already stipulated "Ignorance of Extinguishing Flames" in the regulations, and different countries have different regulations. The "Traffic Control Regulations" of Switzerland stipulates that regulations on idle start and stop during signal waiting periods will be established, and the contents of the textbooks for obtaining driving licenses will be added to the idle start and stop. The United Kingdomâ€™s â€œRoad Traffic Regulations 2012â€ encourages the use of idle start and stop while waiting. Spainâ€™s â€œNo Parking Off Fines Regulationsâ€ stipulates that if parking is over 60 seconds, the traffic on a freeway must be extinguished when it encounters a serious traffic jam. In violation of regulations, the owner will be Penalty is 100 euros.
Hou Hongjian said: â€œTo encourage the start-stop system, the US Environmental Protection Agency has enacted a law stipulating that vehicles with a start-stop system will receive a 'cyclical quota', and the weighted value can be used to calculate the average fuel consumption of enterprises and greenhouse gases. The cost of the government will provide a 50% subsidy."
Europe and the United States have taken the lead and the domestic market has not yet started on a large scale. Hou Hongjian said: â€œWe have forecasted the statistical data from 2004 to 2013. The average time per vehicle for domestic parking will increase from 34 seconds in 2013 to 36 seconds in 2020, and the idle time ratio will increase to about 26. %, the average driving speed dropped from 25 km/h in 2013 to 22 km/h in 2020."
The start-stop system helps save energy and reduce emissions. How to use policy support? Liu Bin made some suggestions.
The revised â€œMethod and Indicators for Evaluating Passenger Vehicle Fuel Consumptionâ€ is expected to be introduced by the end of the year. Liu Bin believes that rewarding the start-stop system in the fuel consumption standards and supporting management measures can effectively promote popularization.
Liu Bin said: â€œAccording to the â€œ2013 Annual Average Fuel Consumption of Passenger Vehiclesâ€ promulgated by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, there are quite a few companies that are not up to the mark. Companies that fail to meet the standards are high-end, large-displacement vehicles that are dragging their feet. Displacement vehicles can meet the limit requirements. These trailing-leg models should be the focus of attention. Vehicles with a price of over 150,000 yuan and a fuel consumption of more than 9 liters are required to have a standard start-stop system."
At the same time, Liu Bin also suggested that the start-stop system be promoted in stages and sub-regionally, and the start-stop system should increase the cost of about 2,000 yuan. High-end vehicles are relatively easy to digest. First, they must be mandatory and gradually transition to 1.6 liters and below. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta are relatively high in fuel consumption. They should first be mandatory in these areas and gradually spread to other regions.
Although the idle start-stop system can not achieve zero emissions, but energy-saving emission reduction also helps physical and mental health, we are willing to hear his footsteps closer and closer to us.
Idly stop and start the implementation
Wan Renmei: In the past few days, a new term â€œAPEC Blueâ€ has been frequently mentioned on the Internet. People havenâ€™t seen such a blue sky for a long time, and they rarely enjoy the excellent life of PM2.5, especially after APEC and Beijing. The sky is reappearing in a grey and gloomy scene, making people even more cherish "APEC Blue."
"APEC Blue" is closely related to safeguard measures. Factories and enterprises in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and other provinces and cities have been restricted production and work stoppages in large areas, and vehicles with odd and even numbers have been restricted. However, such measures cannot be adopted frequently. It is only right to fundamentally manage air pollution.
The zero-emissions of new energy vehicles is undoubtedly the best choice. However, the technical bottlenecks and the lack of supporting facilities have seriously hampered the large-scale purchase of consumers.
On the one hand, air pollution is serious and it is not time to wait. On the other hand, the promotion and application of new energy vehicles is not ideal. What should we do? Idle start and stop cannot completely eliminate pollutant emissions, but it is a feasible measure to help energy conservation and emission reduction. The author has tracked the application of the Jiangsu Chaoli Idle Start-Stop System in a taxi in Beijing. The driver reported that the fuel-saving rate was about 12%.
Those who have had experience in driving a car know that the fuel consumption at the start of the vehicle is relatively large, and the combustion is not enough, and the pollutant emission is relatively high; the urban roads have a lot of red lights, and some time is longer. When the vehicle encounters a red light, the engine spins It also emits a lot of pollutants. The idling start-stop system can reduce pollutants in both cases.
At present, many countries and regions in the world have introduced policies for idling cars. Germanyâ€™s â€œFederal Emission Control Actâ€ and â€œRoad Traffic Licensing Management Regulationsâ€ stipulate that motor vehicles are prohibited from idling for more than an unnecessary period of time. Violators will be punished with heavy penalties; the UKâ€™s â€œAir Pollution Lawâ€ clearly states that local governments can The driver of the motor vehicle, which does not need to spin the engine, will be fined 20 pounds. In Hong Kong, China has also issued regulations to stop the engine for more than three minutes and a fine has been imposed on the violators.
China has no mandatory requirements for idling start and stop. Miao Miao, Minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, has appealed at two meetings in the automotive industry to vigorously promote the application of the start-stop system and strive to make it a â€œmust-fit itemâ€ for automobiles. After more than one year of research, the SAIC Center's research team has given everyone a clear understanding of the use of this technology, which has been implemented as soon as possible!
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